TSS is a rare, but serious illness. It is caused by toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria that is commonly found on the skin and inside the nose and vagina. TSS can appear in women, men and children. The risk of contracting TSS is higher in adolescents and women under 30 years of age than in older women. Although it is infrequent, it is important to know about it to know what to do if necessary. Recognition of the symptoms and early treatment are important. Estimated incidence of TSS is of 1 to 17 per 100,000 menstruating women and girls per year. The symptoms that indicate possible TSS infection are the following: Sudden, high fever (39ºC/102F or higher), dizziness, vomiting, fainting, muscle aches, skin irritations similar to sunburn, diarrhea, near fainting when standing up. Not all symptoms may be present, just some. In more advanced stages of the illness, the skin can begin to scale. TSS can appear during the menstrual period or a little while later. It can advance rapidly with flu-like symptoms, to a serious illness with fatal consequences. If you have one or more of these symptoms, remove the tampon immediately and see your doctor. Tell your doctor that you have been using tampons and that you are concerned about TSS. You should consult your doctor before resuming the use of tampons. You can reduce the risk of menstrual TSS by using tampons with the lowest absorbency necessary to cover your needs and by changing your tampon regularly every 4-6 hours. You can also alternate with use of a sanitary napkin instead of a tampon at least once a day. If you don’t use tampons the risk of TSS is reduced but not entirely eliminated.